Neuroenteroimmunological Theory of Psychopathology in ADHD

Riley Smith


The currently prevailing psychopathological theory of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is neuropsychiatric in nature, conceptualizing the disorder as polygenic variations in the functioning of the monoamine neurotransmitter systems and alterations in neural network structures. This neuropsychiatric paradigm is slowly being joined by a neuroenteroimmunological perspective fed by the quickly expanding field of evidence for the bidirectional interplay of the gut-microbiota-brain, which is presently transitioning from preclinical research into human studies. A significant deviation from the previous tradition of thought, this theory emphasizes the role of environmental factors on the development and function of the BGM axis leading to phenotypic implications. The strength of a microbiota-derived etiologic model here is especially seen in its possible explanation to the long puzzling question of the wide variance in worldwide ADHD prevalence, as diet, gut microbiota composition, and other environmental factors vary so much in the world’s great heterogeneity of cultures and climates. Additionally, this model, if shown to be correct, opens up significant avenues for not only effective treatment of the disorder, but also possible prevention.

Full Text:



  • There are currently no refbacks.