The Not-So-Legen-Dairy Effects of Milk Powder on Algae Growth in Salt Water, Chlorinated Water, and Lake Water

Adrienne Blakey, Alexia Benson, Breannah Banks, Jay Walton


The nutrient levels in aquatic ecosystems effect the scope of the harmful process, eutrophication. Prominent nutrients such as Phosphorus, Nitrogen, and Potassium have been frequently investigated in relation to eutrophication. The more overlooked nutrient, calcium, has shown signs of having impactful effects on the algal populations of different aquatic systems. It was predicted that the increased presence of calcium in lake water will positively affect the algal population, calcium in salt water will positively affect algal growth, and calcium in pool water will extinguish the algal population. The results from this investigation of the effect of calcium on the algal populations in salt water, chlorinated water, and lake water were inconclusive.

Full Text:



Flanders Marine Institute. 2009. Eutrophication in coastal environments. Marine Biodiversity.

Forrest, T., E. Desmond, T. Fischer, and A. Chicas-Mosier. 2016. The Enhancing Effects of Milk on Algal Growth. Journal of Introductory Biology Investigations.

French, D.P. 2017. Investigating Biology. Fountainhead Press, Texas.

Hilt, S., E. M. Gross, M. Hupfer, H. Morscheid, J. Mählmann, A. Melzer, J. Poltz, S. Sandrock, E.-M. Scharf, S. Schneider, and K. V. D. Weyer. 2006. Restoration of submerged vegetation in shallow eutrophic lakes – A guideline and state of the art in Germany. Limnologica - Ecology and Management of Inland Waters 36:155–171.

Lund, J. W. G. 1965. The ecology of freshwater phytoplankton. Biology Review 40:231-93.

Moss, B. 1972. The Influence of Environmental Factors on the Distribution of Freshwater Algae: An Experimental Study: I. Introduction and the Influence of Calcium Concentration. The Journal of Ecology 60:917.

Pace, M. 2009. Faculty of 1000 evaluation for Eutrophication of lakes cannot be controlled by reducing nitrogen input: results of a 37-year whole-ecosystem experiment. F1000 - Post-publication peer review of the biomedical literature.

Smith, S. V., and D. W. Kinsey. 1976. Calcium Carbonate Production, Coral Reef Growth, and Sea Level Change. Science 194:937–939.

Tao, Y., D. Dan, H. Chengda, X. Qiujin, and W. Fengchang. 2016. Response of sediment calcium and magnesium species to the regional acid deposition in eutrophic Taihu Lake, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23:22489–22499.


  • There are currently no refbacks.